Business Encyclopedia A-Words

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Accounting is the process of keeping track of a company’s financial information, such as income, expenses, and assets. It helps businesses know how much money they have, where it’s going, and whether they’re making a profit or not.

Accounts Payable

“Accounts Payable” is the money your business owes to other people or companies because you bought things from them on credit. It’s like a list of bills you need to pay.

Accounts Receivable

Accounts Receivable is the money that a business is owed by its customers. When customers buy something but haven’t paid for it yet, that unpaid amount becomes accounts receivable. It’s like a list of IOUs from your customers.

Accrual Accounting

Accrual accounting is a way of keeping track of money in a business where you record income and expenses when they are earned or incurred, not just when the money actually comes in or goes out of your bank account. It helps you see the complete financial picture over time, even if you haven’t received or spent the money yet.


Acquisition means buying or getting ownership of something, often a company or its assets, to add it to your own business.


Advertising is when companies or individuals promote and show their products, services, or messages to the public through various forms like TV, radio, internet, or billboards to attract customers and get them interested in what they are offering. It’s a way to let people know about something and encourage them to buy or engage with it.

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is when you promote someone else’s products or services, and when people buy through your promotion, you earn a commission (a part of the sale). It’s like recommending a good book to a friend, and if your friend buys it based on your recommendation, you get a small reward.


Agribusiness is when farming is treated like a business. It includes everything from growing crops and raising animals to selling their products. It’s not just farming; it’s farming done as a business to make money.


Alliances are agreements or partnerships between two or more individuals, groups, or organizations who work together for a common purpose or goal. These agreements are formed to share resources, knowledge, or support to achieve something they may not be able to do as effectively on their own.


Amortization is a process of spreading out the cost of something, like a loan or an asset, over time. It means paying back a little bit of the total amount regularly until the entire amount is fully paid off.

Angel Investor

An angel investor is a person who provides money or funds to help start a new business or support a small business. This person usually invests their own money in exchange for a share of the company or future profits. Angel investors often offer not only financial support but also valuable advice and guidance to the business they invest in.

Annual General Meeting

An Annual General Meeting (AGM) is a yearly gathering where a company’s owners or shareholders come together to discuss the company’s performance, financial reports, and important decisions. It’s a chance for shareholders to ask questions, vote on matters, and receive updates about the company’s progress.

Annual Report

An Annual Report is a yearly document that a company makes to tell its shareholders, investors, and the public about how well it did during the past year. It usually includes financial information, like profits and losses, and also explains the company’s goals and plans for the future.


Appraisals are assessments or evaluations of something, like the value or quality of an object, property, or an employee’s performance at work. It’s a way to figure out how good something is or how much it’s worth.


Arbitration is like a fair discussion where two sides of a problem ask someone not involved to make a decision. This person’s choice is usually final, and both sides must follow it. It’s a way to solve a disagreement outside of a courtroom.

Articles of Incorporation

“Articles of Incorporation” is a legal document that a business files with the government to officially establish itself as a company. It contains important information about the company, such as its name, address, purpose, and how it will be run. It typically includes essential information such as the company’s name, location, purpose, and the types of shares it is authorized to issue. This document outlines the basic structure and operating procedures of the company. It’s like a birth certificate for the business, officially creating it as a company.


Assets are things a person or a business owns that have value, like money, property, or equipment. They’re important because they can be used to pay for debts or help with everyday operations.

Asset Management

Asset management refers to the process of overseeing and making decisions about things of value that a person, company, or organization owns. This includes handling investments such as stocks and bonds, as well as tangible assets like real estate and machinery. The goal of asset management is to maximize the value of these resources while minimizing potential risks and costs.


Auditing is checking and inspecting financial records and transactions of a company or organization to make sure they are accurate and honest. It’s a way to ensure that the money and numbers add up correctly and that there’s no wrongdoing or mistakes.

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